linux fdisk, mkfs, mount, inode

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fdisk - Partition table manipulator for Linux (分区)        fdisk [-u] [-b sectorsize] [-C cyls] [-H heads] [-S sects] device           Hard disks can be divided into one or more logical disks called partitions.  This division is described in the partition table found in sector 0 of the disk.        The device is usually one of the following:               /dev/hda               /dev/hdb               /dev/sda               /dev/sdb        (/dev/hd[a-h] for IDE disks, /dev/sd[a-p] for SCSI disks, /dev/ed[a-d] for ESDI disks, /dev/xd[ab] for XT disks).  A device name refers to the entire disk.        The partition is a device name followed by a partition number.  For example, /dev/hda1 is the first partition on the first IDE hard disk in the  system.   IDE  disks        can have up to 63 partitions, SCSI disks up to 15. mkfs - build a Linux file system (格式化)        mkfs [ -V ] [ -t fstype ] [ fs-options ] filesys [ blocks ]           mkfs  is  used  to build a Linux file system on a device, usually a hard disk partition.  filesys is either the device name (e.g.  /dev/hda1, /dev/sdb2) or the mount        point (e.g.  /, /usr, /home) for the file system.  blocks is the number of blocks to be used for the file system.        In actuality, mkfs is simply a front-end for the various file system builders (mkfs.fstype) available under Linux.         -t fstype               Specifies the type of file system to be built.  If not specified, the default file system type (currently ext2) is used. mke2fs - create an ext2/ext3/ext4 filesystem        mke2fs  [ -c | -l filename ] [ -b block-size ] [ -f fragment-size ] [ -g blocks-per-group ] [ -G number-of-groups ] [ -i bytes-per-inode ] [ -I inode-size ] [ -j ] [        -J journal-options ] [ -K ] [ -N number-of-inodes ] [ -n ] [ -m reserved-blocks-percentage ] [ -o creator-os ] [ -O feature[,...]  ] [ -q ] [ -r fs-revision-level  ]        [  -E  extended-options ] [ -v ] [ -F ] [ -L volume-label ] [ -M last-mounted-directory ] [ -S ] [ -t fs-type ] [ -T usage-type ] [ -U UUID ] [ -V ] device [ blocks-        count ]        mke2fs is used to create an ext2, ext3, or ext4 filesystem, usually in a disk partition.  device is the special file corresponding to  the  device  (e.g  /dev/hdXX).        blocks-count  is  the number of blocks on the device.  If omitted, mke2fs automagically figures the file system size.    mount - mount a file system        mount [-fnrsvw] [-t vfstype] [-o options] device dir           All  files  accessible in a Unix system are arranged in one big tree, the file hierarchy, rooted at /.  These files can be spread out over several devices. The mount        command serves to attach the file system found on some device to the big file tree. Conversely, the umount(8) command will detach it again.         The standard form of the mount command, is               mount -t type device dir        This tells the kernel to attach the file system found on device (which is of type type) at the directory dir.  The previous contents (if any) and owner and  mode  of        dir become invisible, and as long as this file system remains mounted, the pathname dir refers to the root of the file system on device. df - report file system disk space usage        df [OPTION]... [FILE]...  $ df Filesystem           1K-blocks      Used Available Use% Mounted on /dev/cciss/c0d0p1     10325748   5077212   4724016  52% / udev                  32918752    909576  32009176   3% /dev /dev/sda3             20641788    967932  18625216   5% /usr/local /dev/sda4            255283516  26986388 215329460  12% /data  $ df -i Filesystem            Inodes   IUsed   IFree IUse% Mounted on /dev/cciss/c0d0p1    1311552   71240 1240312    6% / udev                 8229688     608 8229080    1% /dev /dev/sda3            2626560    2206 2624354    1% /usr/local /dev/sda4            32423936   11203 32412733    1% /data stat - display file or file system status (索引节点inode)        stat [OPTION] FILE..     $ stat / File: `/' Size: 4096            Blocks: 8          IO Block: 4096   directory Device: 801h/2049d      Inode: 2           Links: 22 Access: (0755/drwxr-xr-x)  Uid: (    0/    root)   Gid: (    0/    root) Access: 2013-01-17 18:58:51.000000000 +0800 Modify: 2014-02-19 16:16:31.000000000 +0800 Change: 2014-02-19 16:16:31.000000000 +0800  $ stat ~/.bashrc File: `/home/boss/.bashrc' Size: 1178            Blocks: 8          IO Block: 4096   regular file Device: 801h/2049d      Inode: 1053691     Links: 1 Access: (0644/-rw-r--r--)  Uid: ( 2004/    boss)   Gid: (  100/   users) Access: 2013-01-29 14:07:54.000000000 +0800 Modify: 2013-01-29 14:07:54.000000000 +0800 Change: 2013-01-29 14:07:54.000000000 +0800           struct stat {               dev_t     st_dev;     /* ID of device containing file */               ino_t     st_ino;     /* inode number */               mode_t    st_mode;    /* protection */               nlink_t   st_nlink;   /* number of hard links */               uid_t     st_uid;     /* user ID of owner */               gid_t     st_gid;     /* group ID of owner */               dev_t     st_rdev;    /* device ID (if special file) */               off_t     st_size;    /* total size, in bytes */               blksize_t st_blksize; /* blocksize for filesystem I/O */               blkcnt_t  st_blocks;  /* number of blocks allocated */               time_t    st_atime;   /* time of last access */               time_t    st_mtime;   /* time of last modification */               time_t    st_ctime;   /* time of last status change */           };           The following flags are defined for the st_mode field:        S_IFMT     0170000   bitmask for the file type bitfields        S_IFSOCK   0140000   socket        S_IFLNK    0120000   symbolic link        S_IFREG    0100000   regular file        S_IFBLK    0060000   block device        S_IFDIR    0040000   directory        S_IFCHR    0020000   character device        S_IFIFO    0010000   FIFO        S_ISUID    0004000   set UID bit        S_ISGID    0002000   set-group-ID bit (see below)        S_ISVTX    0001000   sticky bit (see below)        S_IRWXU    00700     mask for file owner permissions        S_IRUSR    00400     owner has read permission        S_IWUSR    00200     owner has write permission        S_IXUSR    00100     owner has execute permission        S_IRWXG    00070     mask for group permissions        S_IRGRP    00040     group has read permission        S_IWGRP    00020     group has write permission        S_IXGRP    00010     group has execute permission        S_IRWXO    00007     mask for permissions for others (not in group)        S_IROTH    00004     others have read permission        S_IWOTH    00002     others have write permission        S_IXOTH    00001     others have execute permission        The set-group-ID bit (S_ISGID) has several special uses.  For a directory it indicates that BSD semantics is to be used  for  that  directory:  files  created  there        inherit  their group ID from the directory, not from the effective group ID of the creating process, and directories created there will also get the S_ISGID bit set.        For a file that does not have the group execution bit (S_IXGRP) set, the set-group-ID bit indicates mandatory file/record locking.        The `sticky' bit (S_ISVTX) on a directory means that a file in that directory can be renamed or deleted only by the owner of the file, by the owner of the directory,        and by a privileged process.    了解inode:http://www.ruanyifeng.com/blog/2011/12/inode.html    


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