A container is an object that holds within it other objects. A container has a capacity, it can be full or empty, and objects can be inserted and withdrawn from a container. In addition, a searchable container is a container that supports efficient search operations.
An enumerator provides a means by which the objects within a container can be accessed one-at-a-time. All enumerators share a common interface, and hide the underlying implementation of the container from the user of that container.
A visitor represents an operation to be performed on all the objects within a container. All visitors share a common interface, and thereby hide the operation to be performed from the container. At the same time, visitors are defined separately from containers. Thus, a particular visitor can be used with any container.
A cursor represents the position of an object in an ordered container. It provides the user with a way to specify where an operation is to be performed without having to know how that position is represented.
An adapter converts the interface of one class into the interface expected by the user of that class. This allows a given class with an incompatible interface to be used in a situation where a different interface is expected.
A singleton is a class of which there is only one instance. The class ensures that there only one instance is created and it provides a way to access that instance.