Android的三种网络通信方式

发布时间:2016-12-6 13:55:38 编辑:www.fx114.net 分享查询网我要评论
本篇文章主要介绍了"Android的三种网络通信方式",主要涉及到Android的三种网络通信方式方面的内容,对于Android的三种网络通信方式感兴趣的同学可以参考一下。

Android平台有三种网络接口可以使用,他们分别是:java.net.*(标准Java接口)、Org.apache接口和Android.net.*(Android网络接口)。下面分别介绍这些接口的功能和作用。 1.标准Java接口 java.net.*提供与联网有关的类,包括流、数据包套接字(socket)、Internet协议、常见Http处理等。比如:创建URL,以及URLConnection/HttpURLConnection对象、设置链接参数、链接到服务器、向服务器写数据、从服务器读取数据等通信。这些在Java网络编程中均有涉及,我们看一个简单的socket编程,实现服务器回发客户端信息。 服务端: [java] view plaincopy public class Server implements Runnable{      @Override      public void run() {          Socket socket = null;          try {              ServerSocket server = new ServerSocket(18888);              //循环监听客户端链接请求              while(true){                  System.out.println("start...");                  //接收请求                  socket = server.accept();                  System.out.println("accept...");                  //接收客户端消息                  BufferedReader in = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(socket.getInputStream()));                  String message = in.readLine();                  //发送消息,向客户端                  PrintWriter out = new PrintWriter(new BufferedWriter(new OutputStreamWriter(socket.getOutputStream())),true);                  out.println("Server:" + message);                  //关闭流                  in.close();                  out.close();              }          } catch (IOException e) {              e.printStackTrace();          }finally{              if (null != socket){                  try {                      socket.close();                  } catch (IOException e) {                      e.printStackTrace();                  }              }          }                }      //启动服务器      public static void main(String[] args){          Thread server = new Thread(new Server());          server.start();      }  }   客户端,MainActivity [java] view plaincopy public class MainActivity extends Activity {      private EditText editText;      private Button button;      /** Called when the activity is first created. */      @Override      public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {          super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);          setContentView(R.layout.main);                    editText = (EditText)findViewById(R.id.editText1);          button = (Button)findViewById(R.id.button1);                    button.setOnClickListener(new OnClickListener() {              @Override              public void onClick(View v) {                  Socket socket = null;                  String message = editText.getText().toString()+ "\r\n" ;                  try {                      //创建客户端socket,注意:不能用localhost或127.0.0.1,Android模拟器把自己作为localhost                      socket = new Socket("<span style="font-weight: bold;">10.0.2.2</span>",18888);                      PrintWriter out = new PrintWriter(new BufferedWriter(new OutputStreamWriter                              (socket.getOutputStream())),true);                      //发送数据                      out.println(message);                                            //接收数据                      BufferedReader in = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(socket.getInputStream()));                      String msg = in.readLine();                      if (null != msg){                          editText.setText(msg);                          System.out.println(msg);                      }                      else{                          editText.setText("data error");                      }                      out.close();                      in.close();                  } catch (UnknownHostException e) {                      e.printStackTrace();                  } catch (IOException e) {                      e.printStackTrace();                  }                  finally{                      try {                          if (null != socket){                              socket.close();                          }                      } catch (IOException e) {                          e.printStackTrace();                      }                  }              }          });      }  }   布局文件: [java] view plaincopy <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>  <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"      android:orientation="vertical" android:layout_width="fill_parent"      android:layout_height="fill_parent">      <TextView android:layout_width="fill_parent"          android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="@string/hello" />      <EditText android:layout_width="match_parent" android:id="@+id/editText1"          android:layout_height="wrap_content"          android:hint="input the message and click the send button"          ></EditText>      <Button android:text="send" android:id="@+id/button1"          android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="wrap_content"></Button>  </LinearLayout>   启动服务器: [java] view plaincopy javac com/test/socket/Server.java  java com.test.socket.Server   运行客户端程序: 结果如图: 注意:服务器与客户端无法链接的可能原因有: 没有加访问网络的权限:<uses-permission android:name="android.permission.INTERNET"></uses-permission> IP地址要使用:10.0.2.2 模拟器不能配置代理。 2。Apache接口 对于大部分应用程序而言JDK本身提供的网络功能已远远不够,这时就需要Android提供的Apache HttpClient了。它是一个开源项目,功能更加完善,为客户端的Http编程提供高效、最新、功能丰富的工具包支持。 下面我们以一个简单例子来看看如何使用HttpClient在Android客户端访问Web。 首先,要在你的机器上搭建一个web应用myapp,只有很简单的一个http.jsp 内容如下: [java] view plaincopy <[email protected] language="java" import="java.util.*" pageEncoding="utf-8"%>  <html>  <head>  <title>  Http Test  </title>  </head>  <body>  <%  String type = request.getParameter("parameter");  String result = new String(type.getBytes("iso-8859-1"),"utf-8");  out.println("<h1>" + result + "</h1>");  %>  </body>  </html>   然后实现Android客户端,分别以post、get方式去访问myapp,代码如下: 布局文件: [java] view plaincopy <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>  <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"      android:orientation="vertical"      android:layout_width="fill_parent"      android:layout_height="fill_parent"      >  <TextView      android:gravity="center"      android:id="@+id/textView"        android:layout_width="fill_parent"      android:layout_height="wrap_content"      android:text="@string/hello"      />  <Button android:text="get" android:id="@+id/get" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="wrap_content"></Button>  <Button android:text="post" android:id="@+id/post" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="wrap_content"></Button>  </LinearLayout>   资源文件: strings.xml [java] view plaincopy <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>  <resources>      <string name="hello">通过按钮选择不同方式访问网页</string>      <string name="app_name">Http Get</string>  </resources>   主Activity: [java] view plaincopy public class MainActivity extends Activity {      private TextView textView;      private Button get,post;      /** Called when the activity is first created. */      @Override      public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {          super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);          setContentView(R.layout.main);                    textView = (TextView)findViewById(R.id.textView);          get = (Button)findViewById(R.id.get);          post = (Button)findViewById(R.id.post);                    //绑定按钮监听器          get.setOnClickListener(new OnClickListener() {              @Override              public void onClick(View v) {                  //注意:此处ip不能用127.0.0.1或localhost,Android模拟器已将它自己作为了localhost                  String uri = "http://192.168.22.28:8080/myapp/http.jsp?parameter=以Get方式发送请求";                  textView.setText(get(uri));              }          });          //绑定按钮监听器          post.setOnClickListener(new OnClickListener() {              @Override              public void onClick(View v) {                  String uri = "http://192.168.22.28:8080/myapp/http.jsp";                  textView.setText(post(uri));              }          });      }      /**      * 以get方式发送请求,访问web      * @param uri web地址      * @return 响应数据      */      private static String get(String uri){          BufferedReader reader = null;          StringBuffer sb = null;          String result = "";          HttpClient client = new DefaultHttpClient();          HttpGet request = new HttpGet(uri);          try {              //发送请求,得到响应              HttpResponse response = client.execute(request);                            //请求成功              if (response.getStatusLine().getStatusCode() == HttpStatus.SC_OK){                  reader = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(response.getEntity().getContent()));                  sb = new StringBuffer();                  String line = "";                  String NL = System.getProperty("line.separator");                  while((line = reader.readLine()) != null){                      sb.append(line);                  }              }          } catch (ClientProtocolException e) {              e.printStackTrace();          } catch (IOException e) {              e.printStackTrace();          }          finally{              try {                  if (null != reader){                      reader.close();                      reader = null;                  }              } catch (IOException e) {                  e.printStackTrace();              }          }          if (null != sb){              result =  sb.toString();          }          return result;      }      /**      * 以post方式发送请求,访问web      * @param uri web地址      * @return 响应数据      */      private static String post(String uri){          BufferedReader reader = null;          StringBuffer sb = null;          String result = "";          HttpClient client = new DefaultHttpClient();          HttpPost request = new HttpPost(uri);                    //保存要传递的参数          List<NameValuePair> params = new ArrayList<NameValuePair>();          //添加参数          params.add(new BasicNameValuePair("parameter","以Post方式发送请求"));                    try {              //设置字符集              HttpEntity entity = new UrlEncodedFormEntity(params,"utf-8");              //请求对象              request.setEntity(entity);              //发送请求              HttpResponse response = client.execute(request);                            //请求成功              if (response.getStatusLine().getStatusCode() == HttpStatus.SC_OK){                  System.out.println("post success");                  reader = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(response.getEntity().getContent()));                  sb = new StringBuffer();                  String line = "";                  String NL = System.getProperty("line.separator");                  while((line = reader.readLine()) != null){                      sb.append(line);                  }              }          } catch (ClientProtocolException e) {              e.printStackTrace();          } catch (IOException e) {              e.printStackTrace();          }          finally{              try {                  //关闭流                  if (null != reader){                      reader.close();                      reader = null;                  }              } catch (IOException e) {                  e.printStackTrace();              }          }          if (null != sb){              result =  sb.toString();          }          return result;      }  }   运行结果如下: 3.android.net编程: 常常使用此包下的类进行Android特有的网络编程,如:访问WiFi,访问Android联网信息,邮件等功能。这里不详细讲。 转载地址:http://blog.csdn.net/yuzhiboyi/article/details/7743390

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