用snmp和mrtg监控linux server

发布时间:2016-12-10 17:05:44 编辑:www.fx114.net 分享查询网我要评论
本篇文章主要介绍了"用snmp和mrtg监控linux server",主要涉及到用snmp和mrtg监控linux server方面的内容,对于用snmp和mrtg监控linux server感兴趣的同学可以参考一下。

上回看了platinum的"mrtg能做些什么"贴子,很受启发,于是也试着做了一个。但当时对snmpd不是很熟,所以没有做成功,后来仔细看了一下 snmd的有关文章和RH中的/etc/snmp/snmpd.conf文件,发现用snmp+mrtg可以很好的实现对局域网内服务器状态的监控。     现在就以用snmp+mrtg监控一台局域网内的redhat机器(IP:192.168.13.103)的网卡、内存、CPU、DISKIO为例子,谈一下如何实现。基本的法办就是用一台redhat监控机器(IP:192.168.13.105),通过snmpwalk命令去抓目标服务器的状态数据,然后用mrtg画出图来。     1、首先我们要把目标snmpd.conf文件的配好。这是用snmpwalk命令一抓取数据的关健。下面是目标机器(IP: 192.168.13.103)上的/etc/snmp/snmpd.conf文件部份内容,红色的部份是我对snmpd.conf所做的改动。    [[email protected] root]# cat /etc/snmp/snmpd.conf #### # First, map the community name "public" into a "security name" #       sec.name  source          community com2sec notConfigUser  default       public  #定义community名称为 public,映射到安全名 notConfigUser。 #### # Second, map the security name into a group name: #       groupName      securityModel securityName group   notConfigGroup v1           notConfigUser   #定义安全用户名notConfigUser映射到notConfigGroup组。 group   notConfigGroup v2c           notConfigUser #### # Third, create a view for us to let the group have rights to: #定义一个view,来决定notConfigUser可以操作的范围。 # Make at least  snmpwalk -v 1 localhost -c public system fast again. #定义可查看的snmp的范围。 #       name           incl/excl     subtree         mask(optional) view    systemview    included   .1.3.6.1.2.1.1 view    systemview    included   .1.3.6.1.2.1.25.1.1 view all   included  .1 #### # Finally, grant the group read-only access to the systemview view. #给notConfigGroup组所定义view名 all 以只读权限。 #       group          context sec.model sec.level prefix read   write  notif access  notConfigGroup ""      any       noauth    exact  all  none none#access  notConfigGroup ""      any       noauth    exact  mib2 none none # ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- # Here is a commented out example configuration that allows less # restrictive access. # YOU SHOULD CHANGE THE "COMMUNITY" TOKEN BELOW TO A NEW KEYWORD ONLY # KNOWN AT YOUR SITE.  YOU *MUST* CHANGE THE NETWORK TOKEN BELOW TO # SOMETHING REFLECTING YOUR LOCAL NETWORK ADDRESS SPACE. ##       sec.name  source          community #com2sec local     localhost       COMMUNITY #com2sec mynetwork NETWORK/24      COMMUNITY ##     group.name sec.model  sec.name #group MyRWGroup  any        local #group MyROGroup  any        mynetwork # #group MyRWGroup  any        otherv3user #... ##           incl/excl subtree                          mask #view all    included  .1                               80 ## -or just the mib2 tree- #view mib2   included  .iso.org.dod.internet.mgmt.mib-2 fc #view mib2   included  .iso.org.dod.internet.mgmt.mib-2 fc ##                context sec.model sec.level prefix read   write  notif #access MyROGroup ""      any       noauth    0      all    none   none #access MyRWGroup ""      any       noauth    0      all    all    all 其实配制一个snmpd.conf文件不算太难, (1)首选是定义一个共同体名(community),这里是public,及可以访问这个public的用户名(sec name),这里是notConfigUser。Public相当于用户notConfigUser的密码:) #       sec.name  source          community com2sec notConfigUser  default       public (2)定义一个组名(groupName)这里是notConfigGroup,及组的安全级别,把notConfigGroup这个用户加到这个组中。             groupName      securityModel securityName group   notConfigGroup   v1           notConfigUser   group   notConfigGroup   v2c           notConfigUser (3)定义一个可操作的范围(view)名, 这里是all,范围是 .1     #       name           incl/excl     subtree         mask(optional)        view  all             included     .1   (4)定义notConfigUser这个组在all这个view范围内可做的操作,这时定义了notConfigUser组的成员可对.1这个范围做只读操作。      #       group          context sec.model sec.level prefix read   write  notif access  notConfigGroup ""      any       noauth    exact  all  none none ok,这样我们的snmpd.conf文件就基本配成了,用service  snmpd  restart重启snmpd服务。现在我们做一个测试,在监控机上打下面的命令:   [[email protected] root]# snmpwalk -v 1 192.168.13.103 -c public system SNMPv2-MIB::sysDescr.0 = STRING: Linux wy1 2.4.20-8smp #1 SMP Thu Mar 13 17:45:54 EST 2003 i686 SNMPv2-MIB::sysObjectID.0 = OID: NET-SNMP-MIB::netSnmpAgentOIDs.10 SNMPv2-MIB::sysUpTime.0 = Timeticks: (7565377) 21:00:53.77 SNMPv2-MIB::sysContact.0 = STRING: Root <[email protected]>; (configure /etc/snmp/snmp.local.conf) SNMPv2-MIB::sysName.0 = STRING: wy1 SNMPv2-MIB::sysLocation.0 = STRING: wy1.wuying.com (edit /etc/snmp/snmpd.conf) SNMPv2-MIB::sysORLastChange.0 = Timeticks: (10) 0:00:00.10 `````````````````````` “Linux wy1 2.4.20-8smp”操作系统的信息已经出来了:) 现在我们在目标机上来写一些脚本来显标MEM、CPU、DiskIO MEM数据的抓取脚本: [[email protected] root]# cat  mfree.sh    #!/bin/sh /usr/bin/free -m | grep Mem |awk '{print $4}' /usr/bin/free -m | grep Mem |awk '{print $2}' [[email protected] root]# sh  mfree.sh   (上面一个数据是内存使用量,下面的是内存总量,M) 442 1006 CPU数据的抓取脚本 [[email protected] root]# cat  cpustat.sh #!/bin/sh idle=`sar  -u 1 3 | grep Average | awk '{print $6}'` used=`echo "101 - $idle" | bc -l -s` echo $used echo $idle DiskIO数据的抓取脚本 [[email protected] root]# cat  iostat.sh    (显示硬盘IO,k/s) #!/bin/sh used1=`sar -d 1 3 | tail -1 | awk '{print $4}'` used2=`echo "$used1 / 2" | bc -l` echo $used2 echo $used2 好现在我们已经能得到这数据了,怎么才能让监控主机通过snmpd得到这些数据呢?可以在目标主机的/etc/snmp/snmpd.conf文件下面加个这些行: exec .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.53 mfree /bin/sh /root/mfree.sh exec .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.54 cpustat /bin/sh /root/cpustat.sh exec .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.55 iostat /bin/sh /root/iostat.sh service  snmpd  restart  重启目标主机上的snmpd服务。 这样在监控主机上运行:    [[email protected] root]# snmpwalk -v 1  192.168.13.103 -c public .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.53 UCD-SNMP-MIB::ucdavis.53.1.1 = INTEGER: 1 UCD-SNMP-MIB::ucdavis.53.2.1 = STRING: "mfree" UCD-SNMP-MIB::ucdavis.53.3.1 = STRING: "/bin/sh /root/mfree.sh" UCD-SNMP-MIB::ucdavis.53.100.1 = INTEGER: 0 UCD-SNMP-MIB::ucdavis.53.101.1 = STRING: "442" UCD-SNMP-MIB::ucdavis.53.101.2 = STRING: "1006" UCD-SNMP-MIB::ucdavis.53.102.1 = INTEGER: 0 其中UCD-SNMP-MIB::ucdavis.53.101.1 = STRING: "442" 中的442就是mfree.sh输出的第一个数据,1006是mfree.sh输出的第二个数据。OK,再做一下加工: [[email protected] root]# snmpwalk -v 1  192.168.13.103 -c public .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.53 | grep 53.101 | awk -F\" '{print $2}' 443 1006 好,我们已经通过snmpd从监控主机上得到了目标主机上内存使用的这两个数据了:),其它的两个脚本也一样:   CPU使用、空闲。 [[email protected] root]# snmpwalk -v 1  192.168.13.103 -c public .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.54 | grep 54.101 | awk -F\" '{print $2}' 1.17 99.83    DISK IO 状态: [[email protected] root]# snmpwalk -v 1  192.168.13.103 -c public .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.55 | grep 55.101 | awk -F\" '{print $2}' 43.00000000000000000000 43.00000000000000000000 最后是编辑监控主机上的mrtg.cfg文件,在Target[xxxx]中加入上面的命令,下面是我的mrtg.cfg文件,前面的两个Target是我用/usr/bin/cfgmaker --global 'WorkDir: /home/httpd/mrtg/net' --global 'Options[_]:growright,bits' --ifref=ip [email protected]  命令生成的,后面的是我跟据platinum 的"mrtg能做些什么"的贴子内的mrtg.cfg文件改的。(在精华里,大家可以看一下)。 [[email protected] root]# cat /home/httpd/mrtg/103/mrtg.cfg # Created by # /usr/bin/cfgmaker --global 'WorkDir: /home/httpd/mrtg/net' --global 'Options[_]:growright,bits' --ifref=ip [email protected] ### Global Config Options #  for UNIX # WorkDir: /home/http/mrtg #  or for NT # WorkDir: c:\mrtgdata ### Global Defaults #  to get bits instead of bytes and graphs growing to the right # Options[_]: growright, bits WorkDir: /home/httpd/mrtg/103 Options[_]:growright,bits Language: chinese ############################################## # System: wy1 # Description: Linux wy1 2.4.20-8smp #1 SMP Thu Mar 13 17:45:54 EST 2003 i686 # Contact: Root <[email protected]>; (configure /etc/snmp/snmp.local.conf) # Location: wy1.wuying.com (edit /etc/snmp/snmpd.conf) ############################################## ### Interface 2 >;>; Descr: 'eth0' | Name: '' | Ip: '192.168.13.103' | Eth: '00-06-5b-19-9d-ea' ### Target[192.168.13.103_192.168.13.103]: /192.168.13.103:[email protected]: SetEnv[192.168.13.103_192.168.13.103]: MRTG_INT_IP="192.168.13.103" MRTG_INT_DESCR="eth0" MaxBytes[192.168.13.103_192.168.13.103]: 1250000 Xsize[192.168.13.103_192.168.13.103]: 300 Ysize[192.168.13.103_192.168.13.103]: 100 #kmg[192.168.13.103_192.168.13.103]: K/s,M/s #kilo[192.168.13.103_192.168.13.103]: 1024 Title[192.168.13.103_192.168.13.103]: Traffic for eth0 192.168.13.103 -- wy1 PageTop[192.168.13.103_192.168.13.103]: <H1>;Traffic for eth0 192.168.13.103 -- wy1</H1>; #Options[192.168.13.103_192.168.13.103]: growright,gauge,nopercent ### Interface 3 >;>; Descr: 'eth1' | Name: '' | Ip: '172.16.0.188' | Eth: '00-06-5b-19-9d-e9' ### Target[192.168.13.103_172.16.0.188]: /172.16.0.188:[email protected]: SetEnv[192.168.13.103_172.16.0.188]: MRTG_INT_IP="172.16.0.188" MRTG_INT_DESCR="eth1" Xsize[192.168.13.103_172.16.0.188]: 300 Ysize[192.168.13.103_172.16.0.188]: 100 MaxBytes[192.168.13.103_172.16.0.188]: 1250000 #ShortLegend[192.168.13.103_172.16.0.188]: #kmg[192.168.13.103_172.16.0.188]: b/s,Kb/s #kilo[192.168.13.103_172.16.0.188]: 1024 Title[192.168.13.103_172.16.0.188]: Traffic for eth1 172.16.0.188 -- wy1 PageTop[192.168.13.103_172.16.0.188]: <H1>;Traffic for eth1 172.16.0.188 -- wy1</H1>; #Options[192.168.13.103_172.16.0.188]: growright,gauge,nopercent ###MEM status Target[wy1_mem]:`snmpwalk -v 1  192.168.13.103 -c public .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.53 | grep 53.101 | awk -F\" '{print $2}'` #Targey[wy1_mem]: memTotalReal.0&memAvailReal.0:[email protected] Xsize[wy1_mem]: 300 Ysize[wy1_mem]: 100 Ytics[wy1_mem]: 7 MaxBytes[wy1_mem]: 1006 Title[wy1_mem]:Memory State of WY1 IP 192.168.13.103 Server PageTop[wy1_mem]:<H1>;Memory State of WY1 IP 192.168.13.103 Server</H1>; ShortLegend[wy1_mem]: MB kmg[wy1_mem]: MB kilo[wy1_mem]:1024 YLegend[wy1_mem]: Memory Usage Legend1[wy1_mem]: 可用内存 Legend2[wy1_mem]: 总内存量 Legend3[wy1_mem]: 可用内存 Legend4[wy1_mem]: 总内存量 LegendI[wy1_mem]: 可用内存 LegendO[wy1_mem]: 总内存量 Options[wy1_mem]: growright,gauge,nopercent ###cpu status Target[wy1_CPU]:`snmpwalk -v 1  192.168.13.103 -c public .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.54 | grep 54.101 | awk -F\" '{print $2}'` #Targey[wy1_CPU]: memTotalReal.0&memAvailReal.0:[email protected] Xsize[wy1_CPU]: 300 Ysize[wy1_CPU]: 100 Ytics[wy1_CPU]: 7 MaxBytes[wy1_CPU]: 100 Title[wy1_CPU]:CPU State of WY1 IP 192.168.13.103 Server PageTop[wy1_CPU]:<H1>;CPU State of WY1 IP 192.168.13.103 Server</H1>; ShortLegend[wy1_CPU]: kmg[wy1_CPU]: % #kilo[wy1_CPU]:1024 YLegend[wy1_CPU]: CPU Usage Legend1[wy1_CPU]: 已用CPU: Legend2[wy1_CPU]: 可用CPU:   LegendI[wy1_CPU]: 已用CPU: LegendO[wy1_CPU]: 可用CPU: Options[wy1_CPU]: growright,gauge,nopercent ###iostat ###cpu status Target[wy1_IO]:`snmpwalk -v 1  192.168.13.103 -c public .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.55 | grep 55.101 | awk -F\" '{print $2}'` #Targey[wy1_IO]: memTotalReal.0&memAvailReal.0:[email protected] Xsize[wy1_IO]: 300 Ysize[wy1_IO]: 100 Ytics[wy1_IO]: 7 MaxBytes[wy1_IO]: 10000 Title[wy1_IO]: DISK IO State of WY1 IP 192.168.13.103 Server PageTop[wy1_IO]:<H1>;DISK IO State of WY1 IP 192.168.13.103 Server</H1>; ShortLegend[wy1_IO]: kmg[wy1_IO]: K/s,M/s kilo[wy1_IO]:1024 YLegend[wy1_IO]: DISK IO SPEED Legend1[wy1_IO]: IO速度: Legend2[wy1_IO]: IO速度: LegendI[wy1_IO]: IO速度: LegendO[wy1_IO]: IO速度: Options[wy1_IO]: growright,gauge,nopercent 用indexmaker -o  /home/httpd/mrtg/103/index.html  /home/httpd/mrtg/103/mrtg.cfg  生成网页,在crontab 中加入*/5 * * * * mrtg /home/httpd/mrtg/103/mrtg.cfg   OK,这样我们就能通过mrtg生成的图来监控我们linux的机器的状态了。在IE中打入[url]http://192.168.13.105/mrtg/103[/url],mrtg的监控网页就出来啦(/home/httpd/是我appache的主目录)。当然我们也能用snmpwalk命令来得到安装有snmp服务的win2000机器的状态的数据: 如: [[email protected] 103]# snmpwalk -v 1 192.168.1.5 -c public HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrStorage    HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrMemorySize.0 = INTEGER: 3800424 KBytes HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrStorageIndex.1 = INTEGER: 1 HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrStorageIndex.2 = INTEGER: 2 HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrStorageIndex.3 = INTEGER: 3 HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrStorageIndex.4 = INTEGER: 4 HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrStorageIndex.5 = INTEGER: 5 HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrStorageIndex.6 = INTEGER: 6 HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrStorageType.1 = OID: HOST-RESOURCES-TYPES::hrStorageRemovableDisk HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrStorageType.2 = OID: HOST-RESOURCES-TYPES::hrStorageFixedDisk HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrStorageType.3 = OID: HOST-RESOURCES-TYPES::hrStorageFixedDisk HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrStorageType.4 = OID: HOST-RESOURCES-TYPES::hrStorageFixedDisk HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrStorageType.5 = OID: HOST-RESOURCES-TYPES::hrStorageCompactDisc HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrStorageType.6 = OID: HOST-RESOURCES-TYPES::hrStorageVirtualMemory HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrStorageDescr.1 = STRING: A:\ HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrStorageDescr.2 = STRING: C:\ Label:  Serial Number 581e89fe HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrStorageDescr.3 = STRING: D:\ Label:New Volume  Serial Number 1cde6e55 HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrStorageDescr.4 = STRING: E:\ Label:DATA_BAK  Serial Number 30d29147 HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrStorageDescr.5 = STRING: F:\ HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrStorageDescr.6 = STRING: Virtual Memory HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrStorageAllocationUnits.1 = INTEGER: 0 Bytes HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrStorageAllocationUnits.2 = INTEGER: 4096 Bytes HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrStorageAllocationUnits.3 = INTEGER: 4096 Bytes HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrStorageAllocationUnits.4 = INTEGER: 4096 Bytes HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrStorageAllocationUnits.5 = INTEGER: 0 Bytes HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrStorageAllocationUnits.6 = INTEGER: 65536 Bytes HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrStorageSize.1 = INTEGER: 0 HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrStorageSize.2 = INTEGER: 2050287 HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrStorageSize.3 = INTEGER: 15703529 HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrStorageSize.4 = INTEGER: 53263499 HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrStorageSize.5 = INTEGER: 0 HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrStorageSize.6 = INTEGER: 89444 HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrStorageUsed.1 = INTEGER: 0 HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrStorageUsed.2 = INTEGER: 1233681 HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrStorageUsed.3 = INTEGER: 591593 HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrStorageUsed.4 = INTEGER: 23583930 HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrStorageUsed.5 = INTEGER: 0 HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrStorageUsed.6 = INTEGER: 50611 HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrStorageAllocationFailures.1 = Counter32: 0 HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrStorageAllocationFailures.2 = Counter32: 0 HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrStorageAllocationFailures.3 = Counter32: 0 HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrStorageAllocationFailures.4 = Counter32: 0 HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrStorageAllocationFailures.5 = Counter32: 0 HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrStorageAllocationFailures.6 = Counter32: 0 上面显示的是192.168.1.5这台win2000SERVER的磁盘信息,可以看到盘符、每个分区的空间总量、使用量等。其它的相应建值还有: Diskused:                                 HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrStorageUsed CPU:                                    HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrProcessorLoad RUN Proc:                               HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrSWRunName SYS Uptime:                             HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrSystemUptime SNMPv2-MIB::sysUpTime SYS Date:                               HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrSystemDate SYS Device:                             HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrDeviceDescr SYS Descr:                              SNMPv2-MIB::sysDescr SYS Name:                               SNMPv2-MIB::sysName netcard speed:                          IF-MIB::ifSpeed netcard physcal address:                IF-MIB::ifPhysAddress 这样我们就可以用一台linux主机通过snmp+mrtg来监控多台局域网内的linux/win2000SERVER了:)。 现在我最关心的是如何让snmp包穿过防火墙,(我用snmpwalk试了一下,抓不到公司在IDC防火墙后的SERVER的snmp数据)。不然,我就可以用snmp去监控公司在IDC防火墙后的SERVER的状态了。听说perl能实现,但不知用什么样的方法来实现?

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